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Editorial (Dr SS Agarwal, Dr K K Aggarwal)
8th  August 2016
Different types of placebo effects
  • The placebo effect in medicine, where getting an inert (e.g. sugar) pill has a large positive effect. It is believed that often there are large positive effects that are simply from the expectation created in the patient. If true, this is the placebo effect, where the intervention in question has no material effect, but the belief of the patient does. Although often transmitted from the doctor's expectancies, it may be independent of the doctor. The placebo effect may be particularly strongly evident in side-effects, where the number and severity of side-effects may be three times larger when patients are warned about the possibility in the study group and in the placebo group.
  • The Hawthorne effect (French, 1953) or the observer effect i.e. the effect did not depend on the particular expectation of the researchers, but being studied caused the improved performance. This might be because attention made the workers feel better; or because it caused them to reflect on their work and reflection caused performance improvements, or because the experimental situation provided them with performance feedback they didn't otherwise have and this extra information allowed improvements.
  • The John Henry effect (Zdep & Irvine, 1970; Saretsky, 1972) is the opposite of the Hawthorne effect. It is seen when a supposedly control group, that receives no intervention compares itself to the experimental group and through extra effort has similar effects or results. It is a type of counter-suggestibility.
  • Jastrow's effect: Here an explicit expectation about performance is transmitted and turned out to change output by a factor of three. (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968;   Jastrow, 1900.)
  • The Pygmalion effect or "expectancy advantage" is that of a self-fulfilling prophecy. Teachers' expectations of pupils can strongly affect (by about a factor of two over a year) the amount of development they show. (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968)
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A 32-year-old male from Jamshedpur asked:
I am 32 years old male, When I take food with vitamins my hemoglobin level rises, but when I don't follow correct diet my hemoglobin level falls. Please tell me what should I do? And my navel has swollen so what should I do?

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Night urination linked to snoring 
 
New Delhi, August 07, 2016: Sleep apnea, a common but serious sleep snoring disorder, is the root cause of nocturia, or getting up frequently during the night to urinate said Padma Shri Awardee Dr KK Aggarwal - President Heart Care Foundation of India (HCFI) and Honorary Secretary General IMA. 

The results of a study conducted by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, which reported these findings are particularly important for older adults who are at greater risk of falling and being hurt if they must get up frequently during the night to urinate. 
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