August 4  2015, Tuesday
Cancer survival rates can increase anxiety
Dr KK AggarwalOne of the first questions many people ask when first diagnosed with cancer is about their prognosis. They might want to know whether the cancer is relatively easy or more difficult to cure. The doctor cannot predict the future, but often he/she gives the estimates based on the experiences of other people with the same cancer. Survival statistics can be confusing and frightening. Survival rates cannot tell about the situation specifically. The statistics may be impersonal and not very helpful.

Cancer survival rates or survival statistics indicate the percentage of people who survive a certain type of cancer for a specific amount of time. Cancer statistics often use a five–year survival rate. For instance, the five–year survival rate for prostate cancer is 99 percent. That means that of all men diagnosed with prostate cancer, 99 of every 100 lived for five years after diagnosis. Conversely, one out of every 100 will die of prostate cancer within five years.

Cancer survival rates are based on research that comes from information gathered on hundreds or thousands of people with cancer. An overall survival rate includes people of all ages and health conditions diagnosed with the cancer, including those diagnosed very early and those diagnosed very late. Only the treating doctor may be able to give more specific statistics based on the stage of cancer. For instance, 49 percent, or about half, of people diagnosed with early–stage lung cancer live for at least five years after diagnosis. The five–year survival rate for people diagnosed with lung cancer that has spread (metastasized) to other areas of the body is 2 percent. Overall and relative survival rates do not specify whether cancer survivors are still undergoing treatment at five years or if they’ve become cancer free (achieved remission). The five year survival rates for all men is 47.3–66%% and for all women is 55.8–63%

Other terms
  • Disease–free survival rate. This is the number of people with cancer who achieve remission. That means they no longer have signs of cancer in their bodies.
  • Progression–free survival rate. This is the number of people who still have cancer, but their disease isn’t progressing. This includes people who may have had some success with treatment, but their cancer hasn’t disappeared completely.
In cardiac arrest call 102 or 100
Effects of watermelon supplementation on arterial stiffness and wave reflection amplitude in postmenopausal women

Menopause, 04/29/2013 Clinical Article

Dr Geetha Subramanian

Postmenopausal women have increased arterial stiffness (brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV)) and wave reflection. L–citrulline supplementation reduces baPWV but not brachial blood pressure. Peripheral vasodilators decrease wave reflection amplitude or second systolic peak (SBP2) in radial artery and aorta, which are related to aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP). The study examined the effects of L–citrulline–rich watermelon supplementation on baPWV, wave reflection characteristics, and aortic SBP in postmenopausal women. Watermelon supplementation reduces arterial stiffness and aortic SBP by reducing pressure wave reflection amplitude in obese postmenopausal women with hypertension.

  • In a randomized cross–over study, 12 postmenopausal women (mean (SE) age, 57 (1)] y; mean [SE] body mass index, 38.1 (2.1) kg/m2; mean (SE) SBP, 153 (4) mm Hg) were assigned to watermelon supplementation (L–citrulline/L–arginine 6 g/d) or placebo supplementation for 6 weeks.
  • Before and after each intervention, baPWV, aortic SBP, aortic diastolic blood pressure, aortic SBP2, radial SBP2, and aortic and radial augmentation indices were measured using applanation tonometry.
  • baPWV (-1.2 (0.3) m/s, P < 0.001), aortic SBP (-10 (3) mm Hg, P < 0.01), and aortic diastolic blood pressure (-7 (1) mm Hg, P < 0.001) decreased after watermelon supplementation compared with placebo.
  • Although radial and aortic augmentation indices were unaffected, radial and aortic SBP2 decreased (-10 (3) mm Hg, P < 0.01) after watermelon supplementation compared with placebo.
  • The reduction in aortic SBP was correlated with reductions in radial SBP2 (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) and aortic SBP2 (r = 0.98, P < 0.001).
  • The decreases in baPWV correlated with reductions in radial SBP2 (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) and aortic SBP2 (r = 0.64, P < 0.01).
New research published in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery suggests that many patients with suspected lung cancer miss diagnostic testing, leading to delays in treatment for the condition. Researchers noted that after the initial identification of suspected lung cancer on X-ray, it took an average of 1.5-6 months for the majority of patients to receive surgery.

A new study revealed that when we attempt mental tasks and physical tasks at the same time, we activate the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in our brain. This can cause our bodies to become fatigued much sooner than if we were solely participating in a physical task. Researchers noted lower blood oxygen levels in the PFC following combined physical and mental fatigue compared to that of just physical fatigue conditions. The findings were published in Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.


Patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP) who consume moderate amounts of alcohol have lower levels of disability, reported a large population-based study published in Arthritis Care & Research.


Diabetes may be an independent contributor to osteoarthritis (OA), and vice versa, suggested a literature review and meta-analysis published online in RMD Open. Researchers noted that the risk of OA was increased among patients with diabetes compared with the nondiabetic population, and the risk of diabetes was elevated in the OA population.

Behavioral training such as mindfulness meditation may be effective at enhancing self-control toward quitting smoking, even for people who have no desire to give up, suggests new research published in the journal Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
Cardiology eMedinewS

Time spent standing, rather than sitting, is associated with lower fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, reported a new study published in the European Heart Journal.


A new expanded cardiovascular risk calculator for use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has been developed to take into account disease-specific factors that can worsen risk, suggest researchers in a paper published in the August issue of Arthritis & Rheumatology.
Pediatrics eMedinewS

In the first study to use MRI to evaluate the prevalence of sacroiliitis with MRI in children with newly diagnosed juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA), researchers report that 20% have inflammatory sacroiliitis at disease onset and this is often asymptomatic. Researchers thus recommend screening for sacroiliitis in all JSpA patients who are HLA-B27-positive, especially in those with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The findings were published online in Arthritis Care & Research.


New research at the University of York has revealed new evidence showing how specific language used by parents to talk to their babies can help their child to understand the thoughts of others when they get older. Children's ability to understand the thoughts of other people when they were aged 5 appeared to be related to how mind-minded their mothers were when they were babies.
Dr KK Spiritual Blog
Health Implications of Chaturmas

The “Chaturmas” begins on Ekadashi in the month of Ashadha and ends with Ekadashi in the month of Kartik and has got both spiritual and health implications. It’s a period when no marriages and auspicious functions are held.

Four months of monsoon are called holy months of the year or Chaturmas and coincide with many festivals. Chaturmas starts with Guru Poornima, a festival to worship your teacher. Then comes the month of Shravana, in which Mondays are worshiped for Lord Shiva. The Narali Poornima in this month marks the end of heavy rain and the throwing of the coconut in the sea appeases it and it calms down. Nag Panchami and Gokul Ashtami are part of this month.

Bhadrapad is the next. The first half is dedicated to the worship of Ganapati, the lord of removal of obstacles and the second half to shradhs when religious ceremonies are held in memory of the departed souls.

The month of Ashwin starts with “Navratri” through Dusshera to Diwali. Kojagiri Purnima in this month is the bright Purnima. The last two days of Ashwin and the first two days of Kartik are usually the days of the Diwali festival. Ekadashi in the first half of the month of Kartik marks the end of the Chaturmas.

The days of monsoon are not usually healthy days. For doctors it is a healthy season as they get a large number of patients.

Health implications
  • In the monsoon all the three doshas (movement, metabolism and structure) are vitiated.
  • Light diet and less oily food are advised, as digestive power is weak. As digestive fire is weak in rainy season, stomach upsets are common.
  • Most ground worms come to the surface and contaminate underground and surface vegetables.
  • Community feasts, marriages, social functions, gatherings are therefore prohibited in this season.
  • River water gets contaminated.
  • Observance of regular fast counteracts these unhealthy conditions.
  • Snakes come out and snakes bites are common. Nag panchami tells us not to kill them unnecessarily as most of them are not poisonous.
  • Green leafy vegetables are avoided in the Shravan month, curd in Bhadrapad, milk in Ashwin and pulses (split variety) and oils in Kartik month. The reason is that in rainy season Vata dosha is aggravated (vegetables aggravate vata) and pitta is accumulating. Pitta producing foods are therefore avoided (curd and fermented foods). In Kartik, the kapha is accumulating and hence oils are restricted. In allopathy, vata is movement, pitta is metabolism and kapha is structural functions.
  • In general, the advice is to abstain from tea, coffee, sugar, rice, wheat etc. and avoid garlic and onion as it can stimulate unnecessary excitements and cause indigestion.
  • Chaturmas is the time to meditate, read spiritual scripture and strengthen inner immunity by meditation.
  • Negative thinking and emotions are common in Chaturmas due to vata imbalance and hence most agreements and important celebrations are avoided during this period.
Make Sure
Situation: A patient on dialysis and on oral antacid developed aluminum toxicity.
Reaction: Oh my God! You should have put him on magaldrate preparations?
Lesson: Make sure to remember that Magaldrate preparations do not cause aluminum toxicity in patients undergoing dialysis.
Dr Good Dr Bad
Situation: A patient came with pinpointed chest pain.
Dr. Bad: It is a classical heart attack.
Dr. Good: It is non–cardiac chest pain.
Lesson: A cardiac chest pain can never be pinpointed by a finger.

(Copyright IJCP)
Gyne Update
Dr. Maninder Ahuja, President IMS (2014-2015), Director Ahuja Hospital &Infertility Centre, Haryana

Health after Hysterectomy

Uterus should never be removed on the pretext of pain, one episode of bleeding or small fibroids. But once it has been removed we have to look into further health of women after a unwarranted or warranted hysterectomy, women enter into menopause or estrogen deficiency even if ovaries are retained, 5-6 years earlier than natural menopause.

Professor Phillip Sarrel has forwarded to us the following item. He started 6 months ago a non-profit, educational Foundation called Advancing Health After Hysterectomy (AHAH). Howard Hodis and about 20 other opinion leaders in gynecology, cardiology, endocrinology, surgery and oncology research and education have joined the project. They have been making presentations throughout the US. The focus, for many reasons, has been estrogen therapy for women within 10 years of hysterectomy. The Cleveland Clinic picked AHAH as one of the 10 most important new developments in women's health. On September 25, at Yale, AHAH will be part of a 6-hour, CME-accredited course on 'Current concepts: re-thinking the role of estrogen therapy in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women'. The group has also been able to reach out, through the internet, to important women's consumer groups. The Foundation plans to include research scholars who would be funded for 1 year to do research and education related to estrogen.

The largest number of hysterectomies are being done in India. We are not looking after the health of these women and they have to be prescribed estrogens to prevent hot flushes, CHD, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease, urogenital and sexuality problems and metabolic syndrome.
eMedi Quiz
Interscalene approach to brachial plexus block does not provide optimal surgical anaesthesia in the area of distribution of which of the following nerve:

1. Musculocutaneous.
2. Ulnar
3. Radial
4. Median.

Yesterday’s Mind Teaser: In all of the following conditions neuraxial blockade is absolutely contraindicated, except:

1. Patient refusal.
2. Coagulopathy
3. Severe hypovolemia.
4. Pre-existing neurological deficits.

Answer for yesterday’s Mind Teaser: 4. Pre-existing neurological deficits.
Correct Answers received from: Dr Jainendra Upadhyay, Dr Poonam Chablani, Daivadheenam Jella.
Answer for 1st August Mind Teaser: 3.Gelfiltration chromatography.
Correct Answers received: Dr Jainendra Upadhyay, Daivadheenam Jella.
Rabies News (Dr A K Gupta)
What are the most common modes of exposures of rabies virus?

Human exposures to rabies can generally be categorized as bite, open wound, mucous membrane, or other types of exposure:
  • Bite exposure: Any penetration of the skin of a person by the teeth of a rabid or potentially rabid animal.
  • Open wound exposure: Introduction of saliva or other potentially infectious material (cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord, or brain tissue) from a rabid or potentially rabid animal into an open wound (e.g., broken skin that bled within the past 24 hours).
  • Mucous membrane exposure: Introduction of saliva or other potentially infectious material (cerebrospinal fluid, spinal cord, or brain tissue) from a rabid or potentially rabid animal onto any mucous membrane (eyes, nose, mouth).
  • Other exposure: Any interaction with a rabid or potentially rabid animal where a bite, open wound, or mucous membrane exposure cannot be definitively ruled out.
IJCP Book of Medical Records
IJCP’s ejournals
CPR 10
Total CPR since 1st November 2012 – 110490 trained
Video of the Day
Sameer Malik Heart Care Foundation Fund
The Sameer Malik Heart Care Foundation Fund is a one of its kind initiative by the Heart Care Foundation of India instituted in memory of Sameer Malik to ensure that no person dies of a heart disease because they cannot afford treatment. Any person can apply for the financial and technical assistance provided by the fund by calling on its helpline number or by filling the online form.
Madan Singh, SM Heart Care Foundation Fund, Post CAG
Kishan, SM Heart Care Foundation Fund, Post CHD Repair
Deepak, SM Heart Care Foundation Fund, CHD TOF
eIMA News
Human DNA Profiling Bill
The Govt. of India is trying to pass DNA Profiling Bill in the current Parliament Session. Unfortunately, the draft Bill has not been placed in the public domain for pre-legislative consultation.

The Bill will allow the Govt. to arrange a national DNA Databank and a DNA Profile Board and use the data for various specified forensic purposes.

The National DNA Databank will collect data from offenders, suspects, missing persons, unidentified dead bodies and witnesses.

It will store DNA Data in criminal cases like sexual assault, adultery.

The DNA data will be restricted and will be available only to the accused or the suspect.

Any misuse of data will carry a punishment of up to 3 years imprisonment and fine. The Justice A P Shah Committee in October 2012 suggested that samples must be taken after consent in case of victims and suspects. Sample can also be taken from crime scenes.

DNA can reveal very personal information about people therefore, has a high potential for misuse and hence the Bill should have a powerful safeguard for privacy.
Report of Activities of IMA National Health Scheme till 31st July 2015
IMA National Health Scheme

Proposal of IMA National Health Scheme was passed in the central council by a resolution dated 28th December 2012 at Kanyakumari. The Byelaw is approved by the 75th Central Council Meeting on 27th December 2014, at Ahmedabad, Gujarat

1. Title:- The Scheme shall be known as “IMA National Health Scheme” (IMA NHS)

2. Registration :- It shall function as an activity of National IMA and managed by IMA National Health Scheme as per rules & Byelaws of the Scheme
  1. Aims and Objectives of the Scheme
    To provide financial assistance to the members and his/her spouse, child (ren) and parent(s) on the event of hospitalization, diagnosis and management of the following diseases:-
    • Heart Disease: - Angioplasty, Bypass Surgery and Valve replacement Surgery.
    • Renal Failure, Haemodialysis, Renal Transplantation,
    • All Malignant diseases
    • Brain Tumours
    • Hip and Knee replacement surgery.
    • Spine and disc surgery
    • Cerebrovascular accidents
    • Road Traffic and other accidents
    • Other major illness requiring hospitalization approved by the scrutinizing committee appointed by the IMA National President
  2. Beneficiaries
    • Benefits of the scheme shall be available only to the member and his / her spouse, child (ren) and parent(s), if the member has paid the membership subscription of his and his/ her spouse child (ren) and Parent(s).
    • In the event of death of a member, the spouse, child (ren) and parents can opt as a beneficiary member of the scheme.
    • Such a beneficiary member shall not have any other right including the right to contest or to vote.
  3. Eligibility for Membership:-
    • Life member of IMA.
    • Member should be below the age of 80 years at the time of joining.
  4. Admission Fee. (A F) (One time pay) For members/Spouse/Parents
    • Below age of 35 yrs Rs. 1000.00
    • Below age of 45 Yrs but above 35 Yrs Rs. 1250.00
    • Below age of 55 Yrs but above 45 Yrs Rs. 1750.00
    • Below age of 60 Yrs but above 55Yrs Rs. 5000.00
    • Below age of 65 Yrs but above 60 Yrs Rs. 7000.00
    • Below age of 70 Yrs but above 65 Yrs Rs. 8000.00
    • Below age of 80 Yrs but above 70Yrs `` Rs. 10,000.00
      For child (ren) of members
      Child (ren) below the age of 25 Yrs Rs. 1000 .00
  5. Annual Membership Subscription (AMS) (To Pay Every Year)
    Every member/ beneficiary member Rs 500.00

    Out of Rs 500/- annual membership fee Rs 300/- will go to National IMA account and Rs 200 to Scheme.
  6. Annual Financial Assistance Contribution (AFAC) (To Pay every Year)

    Every Member / beneficiary member / Child (ren) shall pay the following amount.
    • Children below 25 yrs Rs. 2500.00
    • Below the age of 55 yrs Rs. 3000.00
    • Above 55 and below 60 yrs Rs. 5000.00
    • Above 60 and below 65 yrs Rs. 7000.00
    • Above 65 and below 70 yrs Rs. 8000.00
    • Above 70 and below 80 yrs Rs. 10000.00
When a member / Spouse / Child(ren) / Parents first join the scheme they should pay the Admission fee, Annual membership subscription and Advance financial assistance contribution(AF + AMS + AFAC) at the rate mentioned above. Prescribed application form along with the admission fee, Annual membership subscription and Advance Financial Assistance Contribution drawn in favour of the scheme “IMA National Health Scheme” by A/C Payee draft payable at the secretary’s office has to be sending to the Hony. Secretary’s office. No cash or money order will be accepted. Admission fee (AF) is onetime payment.

Annual membership subscription and advance financial assistance contribution shall be paid every year (AMS +AFAC).

Founder Member:

Members who join first time will get the status of founder member irrespective of age group. There will be a concession of Rs 1500 to those who join above the age of 55 years since they are paying higher premium. This benefit will be only for six months only from March 1st to 30th September 2015. This benefit is to give opportunity for all below 80 years. After September this benefit will stop and have to pay as the prescribed tariff above.



Member/ spouse/ child (ren)/parents shall submit their application in the prescribed application form along with their admission fees, membership subscription and Advance Financial Assistance Contribution (AF + AMS + AFAC) drawn in favour of the scheme “IMA National Health Scheme” by A/C Payee draft or local cheque payable at the head office - secretary’s office place at Thiruvananthapuram with endorsement by local branch secretary or Branch president of IMA with copy of life membership certificate and passport size photo of member. No cash or money order will be accepted. From 2nd Year onwards members need to pay only Annual Subscription and Advance Finance Assistance Contribution (AMS +AFAC).

After the launching of scheme, membership drive started from 1st January. So far 153 members joined especially young age group. All the office bearers were taken membership and membership has started flowing. As a Membership drive Secretary visited different branches – Dhule, Bombay and Nagpur. Many have expressed their eagerness to join and making use of their desire to join. National President and Hon. Secretary General are very much interested and promoting the scheme.

I request all the states to promote this scheme and nominate their state coordinators. New website for N.H.S is launched in the end of July 2015 as-

Yours Sincerely

Dr. Ashok Adhao                             Dr. Alex Franklin
Chairman                                        Hon. Secretary
Chiranjivi Nursing Home                 “Thudakkottil”
Nr.Ayachit Mandir                            Dr.Pai Road
Lakdi Pool                                       Dr. PNRA -34
Nagpur,-440002                             Thiruvananthapuram -12
Maharashtra                                   Kerala
Phone- 9822473651                       Phone 09447016953,   

N.B- All communications may be sent to the secretary.
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IMA IPMO Initiative
Kindly go to
and pledge your organs
unless we do it public will not listen to us

Team IMA
ICON 2015
Inspirational Story

Morality may consist solely in the courage of making a choice. Wickedness is always easier than virtue, for it takes a short cut to everything. But over time you learn, you can’t make wrong work. There are always two choices, two paths to take. One is easy. And your only reward is that it’s easy. You cannot do wrong without suffering wrong.

Work joyfully and peacefully, knowing that right thoughts and right efforts will inevitably bring about right results. You can never lose anything that really belongs to you, and you can’t keep that which belongs to someone else.

You always experience the consequences of your own acts. If your acts are right, you’ll get good consequences; if not, you’ll suffer for it. Sooner or later everyone sits down to a banquet of consequences.
Quote of the Day
He who closes his ears to the views of others shows little confidence in the integrity of his own views. William Congreve
IMA in Social Media 28644 likes 46702 likes 1751 likes

Twitter @IndianMedAssn 1086 followers
Reader Response
I am sure it is a big conspiracy to defame Dr Ketan Desai.the media trial and the false propaganda to show the false vanity by media people are highly derogatory and must be condemned. We feel that Dr ketan Desai as president of WMA will be an asset and bring many laurels for this august association. Dr Rajiva Ranjan, Patna
Wellness Blog
Most uncontrolled asthmatics think they are controlled

Two-thirds of patients with uncontrolled asthma think their disease is well under control. Asthmatics on proper medicines can not only live a normal life but also reduce their future complications.

Uncontrolled asthmatics invariably end up with right heart complications due to persistent lack of oxygenation in the blood.

Dr. Eric van Ganse, of University of Lyon, France, in a study published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, examined 1,048 subjects with inadequate asthma control. When asked how they would rate their asthma control over the past 14 days, over 69 percent considered themselves to be completely or well controlled. Failure to perceive inadequate asthma control was more likely to be found in patients between the ages of 41 and 50 years.

The reasons are:
  • Most asthmatics fail to perceive their level of disease control and with an uncontrolled state they often feel that their asthma is under control.
  • In severe asthma low blood oxygen levels might impair a person’s ability to assess their own breathing difficulty.
  • The notion of asthma control seems poorly understood by asthmatic patients.
Mild to moderate asthma limits the activities of a person and they over a period of time take that as their normal limits.
IMA Humor
Anniversary Gift

After she woke up, a woman told her husband, "I just dreamed that you gave me a pearl necklace for our anniversary. What do you think it means?" "You’ll know tonight," he said. That evening, the man came home with a small package and gave it to his wife. Delighted, she opened it – to find a book entitled "The Meaning of Dreams."
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Press Release
Emergency Guide to save a drowning victim

It is not rare that we hear of incidents of drowning during beach holidays, swimming accidents and times of natural calamities. Most people do not survive given the lack of awareness among the public on emergency techniques.

“By immediately administering CPR, the lives of drowning victims can be saved. Unlike most situations where hands-only CPR 10 is sufficient to revive the victim, in the case of drowning, mouth-to mouth resuscitation is also required,” said Padma Shri Awardee Dr A Marthanda Pillai, National President Indian Medical Association (IMA) & Padma Shri Awardee, Dr K K Aggarwal, President Heart Care Foundation of India and Honorary Secretary General IMA.

Adding to this, Dr KK Aggarwal said, “Upon finding a drowning victim, one must immediately bring them out of the water and make them lie flat on their back on a hard and dry surface. Then call the emergency medical services and check for any signs of breathing or a pulse rate. If the victim is not breathing, then one must immediately begin the process of CPR. In drowning victims, chest compressions must be supplemented by mouth-to-mouth breathing.”

The person performing CPR must stand on his knees. With hands interlocked and elbows straight, he or she should start compressing the center of the chest of the victim, about 2 inches deep at a speed of 10 x 10 i.e. 100 a minute. After performing 30 compressions, he/she should shift to mouth-to-mouth breathing. To do this, they must tilt back the head of the victim, pinch their nose and breathe two long breaths into the airway of the person. Post this, chest compressions should be repeated and the process follows till either medical help arrives or the person is revived.

Heart Care Foundation of India jointly with the Indian Medical Association, Delhi Red Cross Society and Delhi Police has taken up the challenge of training 100% of the Delhi Police PCR van staff on the life-saving technique of hands-only CPR 10 by Independence Day 2015. Until now over 6500 police PCR van staff have been trained so far in CPR 10, also called as compression-only CPR or bystander CPR or first responder CPR.

The 2010 guidelines set out by the American Heart Association (AHA) do not recommend mouth to mouth breathing for revival after death due to a sudden cardiac arrest except in cases of death due to drowning or in the case of an infant.

If 20% of the Indian population is made aware of how to perform hands-only CPR 10, over 50% of deaths due to a sudden cardiac arrest can be avoided.

A sudden cardiac arrest occurs when the electrical conducting system of the heart fails and the heart beats irregularly and very fast (more than 1000 times, technically called as ventricular fibrillation). Soon after, the heart suddenly stops beating and the blood flow to the brain stops. As a result, the person becomes unconscious and stops normal breathing.

A cardiac arrest is not the same as a heart attack, but it may be caused by a heart attack. In most cases, sudden cardiac arrest may be reversible in the first 10 minutes. This is possible because the brain remains alive during this period when the heart and respiration have stopped, a situation called clinical death.

To know more or to organize a training camp in your locality, please call the NGO’s helpline number 9958771177.