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19th September, 2017
Criteria to evaluate decision-making capacity for consent
Dr KK Aggarwal
Consent taking is an integral part of clinical practice. Doctors are required to obtain informed consent from their patients before initiating treatment or carrying out any procedure, therapeutic or diagnostic. 
The concept of consent is derived from the ethical principle of patient autonomy. Consent is therefore an ethical obligation and legal requirement. 
There are three components of a valid consent:
  • The patient gives it voluntarily without any coercion
  • The patient has the minimum of adequate level of information about the nature of the procedure to which he is consenting to.
  • The patient has the capacity and competence to give consent
Criteria that have been deemed to be necessary to reach to a decision by the patient regarding his/her treatment have been defined: Understanding, expressing a choice, appreciation and reasoning. Assessment of these criteria for decision making capacity is an essential part of the process of informed consent.
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Ovarian cancer symptoms not apparent until later stages
It is the eighth most common cancer in women
Lifestyle changes can help reduce risk
New Delhi, 18 September, 2017: Of all cancers in women, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and ranks fifth in terms of mortality, according to statistics. About two-thirds of those with this condition stand at an advanced stage of the disease during diagnosis and less than 50% survive longer than five years after being diagnosed. As per the IMA, the primary reason for reaching the advanced stage and eventual death is that in many women with this disease, there are no symptoms.
Ovarian cancer refers to any cancerous growth in the ovary. A majority of ovarian cancers arise from the epithelium (outer lining) of the ovary. The most common ovarian cancers are called epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC) and other types include ovarian low malignant potential tumor (OLMPT), germ cell tumors, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
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